grounding

what is meant by grounding and why is it important

Over the last few years I have picked up strongly on the term grounding to talk about a robots “knowledge” (robot epistemology) and especially for discussing grounding fails as they come in through the news or through experience.

Grounding is related to the symbol grounding problem (SGP) in AI where thinking is often modeled as inference on mental symbols. The symbols represent outside objects or object relationships. Now, the SGP asks to what extent and how precisely any such symbol is grounded in, that is, connected to, the raw sensory data.

The grounding should be a complete description of how sensor values change symbol states and how sensor values can be predicted from symbol states. If a symbol’s grounding is even only slightly off, this might be amplified during inference, producing potentially large and disastrous errors when the inference is being committed to, aka sent to the motors.

Depending on your philosophical stance you might disagree but raw sensory data is the only source of information available to an organism, both individually and phylogenetically. Introducing symbols taken from the introspection into mental activity creates large risk to end up with dangling symbols and associated downstream effects. It appears the issue has crucial relevance for building trustworthy robots.

grounding fails

The systems that are being built and which surround us and shape our lives are usually built to a specification which is held in vague (natural language) terms. Then engineering kicks in to solve each point of the spec. If the project is framed in narrow terms (Kahneman), it is likely that a solution is created that fits the spec but does so in a fragile way that relies on assumptions that often do not hold. The situation is illustrated in the picture below.

Classical scaffolding and newschool piling.

A premium grounding fail is the story of Alexa ordering an expensive dollhouse in interaction with a kid playing dolls at home (Alexa, order me the nicest dollhouse you know). This story made it onto a radio news broadcast. During the live broadcast the scenario was acted out and a few hundred Alexa’s that listened to the radio show went on to order the same dollhouse again (TODO: citation needed).

The fail here is that Alexa pretends to understand spoken human language but in a fundamental way it doesn’t. My favorite term here is /preverbal/ auditory skills. Preverbal means things related to the general acoustic setting which we constantly compute, such as general acoustic activity; presence and location of sound sources; intermodal cues from vision, smell, memory; tonus of a speakin voice; variability of a speaking voice; and so. These properties allow to distinguish fundamentally between different types of sound sources and we expect them to be mastered before we even begin to speak ourselves.

List of funny and serious examples

pile of sheets

The proposal is to build these systems as piles of sheets. This approach leads to a thickly interwoven structure that has very favorable properties when sheets or groups of them fail. It is a visual and metaphorical proposal but just as serious and we’re out to do it.

Each sheet can be thought of as a computational module, that has some function and some capacity for adaptation. It solves some small part in the large job of translating all raw sensory information to a consistent high level state as it is perceived in conscious experience. The high level is reached by piling thousand of sheets on top of each other with higher level concepts represent by sheets higher up in the pile.

Now if we fail and pull out one or more of these sheets from the pile, nothing really happens. There will only be small readjustment to a new equilibrium under the gravitational pull of unexplanation.

  • TODO: Explain proprioceptive grounding and force gauging
  • TODO: Explain nonintuitive decompositions
  • TODO: Q: Is intuition the same as introspection? Does intuitive mean recognizable by means of introspection?

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